1.1. The Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India has launched National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) by restructuring Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) replacing the existing SGSY scheme, effective from April 1, 2013.
1.2. NRLM is the flagship program of Govt. of India for promoting poverty reduction through building strong institutions of the poor, particularly women, and enabling these institutions to access a range of financial services and livelihoods services.
2. Key difference from SGSY:
NRLM is promoting a major shift from purely ‘allocation based’ strategy to a ‘demand driven’ strategy wherein states have the flexibility to develop their own plans for capacity building of women SHGs and Federations, infrastructure and marketing, and policy for financial assistance for the SHGs.
NRLM will promote the formation of women SHGs on the basis of affinity and not on the basis of a common activity, as it used to be under SGSY.
SHG Federations: All SHGs in a village come together to form a federation at the village level. The village federation is a very important support structure for the members and their SHGs. The cluster federation is the next level of federation. A cluster consists of a group of villages within a block. The exact configuration will vary from State to State, but typically a cluster consists of 25 – 40 villages. The Village federations and the Cluster federations are the two critical support structures for the SHG s and their members in their long journey out of poverty.
NRLM will provide continuous hand-holding support to SHGs, and their federations. This was missing in SGSY.
Key Features of NRLM
1. Universal Social Mobilization: To begin with, NRLM would ensure that at least one member from each identified rural poor household, preferably a woman, is brought under the Self Help Group (SHG) network in a time bound manner.
2. Participatory identification of poor (PIP): The experience from SGSY suggests that the current BPL list has large inclusion and exclusion errors. To widen the target groups beyond the BPL list and to include all the needy poor, NRLM will undertake community based process i.e. participation of the poor process to identify its target group. Over the years, the participatory method of identifying the poor have been developed and applied successfully in the states like AP, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Odisha.
3. Promotion of Institutions of the poor: Strong institutions of the poor such as SHGs and their village level and higher level federations are necessary to provide space, voice and resources for the poor and for reducing their dependence on external agencies. The Livelihoods collectives would enable the poor to optimize their limited resources.
4. Strengthening all existing SHGs and federations of the poor. There are existing institutions of the poor women formed by Government efforts and efforts of NGOs. NRLM would strengthen all existing institutions of the poor in a partnership mode.
5. Emphasis on Training, Capacity building and skill building: NRLM would ensure that the poor are provided with the requisite skills for: managing their institutions, linking up with markets, managing their existing livelihoods, enhancing their credit absorption capacity and credit worthiness, etc. A multi-pronged approach is envisaged for continuous capacity building of the targeted families, SHGs, their federations, government functionaries, bankers, NGOs and other key stakeholders
6. Revolving Fund and Community investment support Fund (C.I.F): A Revolving Fund would be provided to eligible SHGs as an incentive to inculcate the habit of thrift and accumulate their own funds towards meeting their credit needs in the long-run and immediate consumption needs in the short-run. The C.I.F would be a corpus and used for meeting the members’ credit needs directly and as catalytic capital for leveraging repeat bank finance. The C.I.F would be routed to the SHGs through the Federations.
7. Universal Financial Inclusion: NRLM would work towards achieving universal financial inclusion, beyond basic banking services to all the poor households, SHGs and their federations. NRLM would work on both demand and supply side of Financial Inclusion. On the demand side, it would promote financial literacy among the poor and provides catalytic capital to the SHGs and their federations. On the supply side, it would coordinate with the financial sector and encourage use of Information, Communication & Technology (ICT) based financial technologies, business correspondents and community facilitators like ‘Bank Mitras’. It would also work towards universal coverage of rural poor against loss of life, health and assets. Further, it would work on remittances, especially in areas where migration is endemic.
8. Provision of Interest Subvention: The rural poor need credit at low rate of interest and in multiple doses to make their ventures economically viable. In order to ensure affordable credit, NRLM has a provision for subvention on interest rate above 7% per annum for all eligible SHGs, who have availed loans from mainstream financial institutions.
9. Funding Pattern: NRLM is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme and the financing of the programme would be shared between the Centre and the States in the ratio of 75:25 (90:10 in case of North Eastern States including Sikkim; completely from the Centre in case of UTs). The Central allocation earmarked for the States would broadly be distributed in relation to the incidence of poverty in the States.
10. Phased Implementation: Social capital of the poor consists of the institutions of the poor, their leaders, community professionals and more importantly community resource persons (poor women whose lives have been transformed through the support of their institutions). NRLM would reach all districts by the end of 12th Five-year Plan.
11. Intensive blocks. The blocks that are taken up for implementation of NRLM, ‘intensive blocks’, would have access to a full complement of trained professional staff and cover a whole range of activities of universal and intense social and financial inclusion, livelihoods, partnerships etc. However, in the remaining blocks or non-intensive blocks, the activities may be limited in scope and intensity.
12. Rural Self Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs). RSETI concept is built on the model pioneered by Rural Development Self Employment Institute (RUDSETI) – a collaborative partnership between SDME Trust, Syndicate Bank and Canara Bank. The model envisages transforming unemployed youth into confident self- employed entrepreneurs through a short duration experiential learning programme followed by systematic long duration hand holding support. The need-based training builds entrepreneurship qualities, improves self-confidence, reduces risk of failure and develops the trainees into change agents. Banks are fully involved in selection, training and post training follow up stages. The needs of the poor articulated through the institutions of the poor would guide RSETIs in preparing the participants/trainees in their pursuits of self-employment and enterprises. NRLM would encourage public sector banks to set up RSETIs in all districts of the country.
- Rural Mission to be executed in phased manner (thehindu.com)
- Making women financially independent (news.in.msn.com)
- Take Aajeevika mission to more areas, says Sonia (thehindu.com)
- I have learnt that even a minor improvement in the income levels of a poor village household is a huge contribution (pmrdfellows.wordpress.com)
- A great challenge remains in reaching out to as many families as I can and change their lives in terms of quality (pmrdfellows.wordpress.com)
- POWERCRACY: Rahul believes self-help groups will bring ‘silent revolution’ for rural women (dailymail.co.uk)
- IZB rolls out lending scheme for women groups (times.co.zm)